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UPDATE ON THE HIV/AIDS SITUATION IN SINGAPORE 2012


Characteristics of new cases of HIV infection reported in 2012

1.       In 2012, another 469 Singapore residents[1] were newly reported with HIV infection.  About 93% of the new cases were males and 7% were females. This brings the total number of HIV infected Singapore residents to 5,775 as of end 2012.  As at 31 Dec 2012, 2,814 persons are asymptomatic carriers, 1,379 have or have had AIDS-related illnesses and 1,582 have died.

2.       Sexual transmission remains the main mode of HIV transmission among Singapore residents.  Of the 469 cases reported in 2012, 457 cases acquired the infection through the sexual route, with heterosexual transmission accounting for 47% of infections, homosexual transmission 45% and bisexual transmission 6%.  Intravenous drug use (2 cases) accounted for 0.4% of infections. 

3.       Nearly 90% of all new cases reported in 2012 were between 20 to 59 years of age.  Almost half were between 30 and 49 years of age.

4.       Approximately 64% of all new reported cases were single, 25% were married and 9% were divorced or separated. 68% of the males were single, compared to only 22% among the females. 

5.       In 2012, 48% of the new cases already had late-stage HIV infection[2] when they were diagnosed.  

6.       45% of the new cases in 2012 were diagnosed during medical care[3], while another 34% were detected as a result of routine programmatic HIV screening[4]. 14% were detected as a result of voluntary HIV screening. When differentiated by sexual transmission, a higher proportion of homosexuals/bisexuals had their HIV infection detected via voluntary screening compared to heterosexuals (25% vs. 4%).

 ‘ABCD' to protect against HIV Infection

7.       The Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Health Promotion Board (HPB) urge individuals to protect themselves from HIV infection and its effects by following the principles of ‘ABCD’: (A) abstinence, (B) being faithful, (C) correct and consistent use of condoms and (D) early detection. These principles are relevant for everyone regardless of the risk group they belong to.

8.       While prevention is always the preferred option, those at risk of HIV infection and those who engage in risky sexual behavior should go for regular HIV testing. Regular HIV testing can help an infected person to be diagnosed at an earlier stage of infection. Early diagnosis can afford a HIV positive person earlier access to care and treatment, and also allow him/her to receive counseling on how to protect their partners from infection. HIV testing is available in most medical clinics. Anonymous testing services are also available in selected locations.

9.       To complement MOH’s efforts in urging regular HIV testing for at-risk individuals, HPB’s partners conduct various educational outreach programmes on HIV prevention and management using a lifestyle approach by the use of radio talk shows and men’s health seminars. These programmes also encourage at-risk individuals to take personal protective measures and have regular HIV testing, so as to allow for early detection and treatment, delay the onset of AIDS and ensure an active and productive life.

10.     Using a ‘3P’ approach to leverage People in the community, Private companies and other agencies in the Public sector, these programmes debunk myths and misconceptions about HIV as well as reduce the stigma and discrimination against People Living with HIV (PLHIVs) – all likely factors that may lead to late testing and detection of HIV infection. One such collaboration is the HPB’s partnership with the Singapore National Employers’ Federation (SNEF) which has reached 145,000  employees by programmes that aim to raise awareness and knowledge on HIV in the workplace in 2012.

11.     More information about HIV and AIDS can be found at the HPB website at http://www.hpb.gov.sg.

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TABLE 1: NUMBER OF SINGAPORE RESIDENTS REPORTED WITH HIV/AIDS (1985 – 2012)

 

Year

HIV/AIDS

Male

Female

Total

Rate*

1985

2

0

2

0.8

1986

6

1

7

2.8

1987

10

0

10

3.9

1988

15

0

15

5.8

1989

9

1

10

3.8

1990

17

0

17

6.2

1991

39

3

42

15.0

1992

49

6

55

19.3

1993

58

6

64

22.0

1994

76

10

86

29.1

1995

102

9

111

36.8

1996

123

16

139

45.3

1997

157

16

173

55.4

1998

167

32

199

62.6

1999

171

35

206

63.8

2000

193

33

226

69.0

2001

204

33

237

71.3

2002

206

28

234

69.2

2003

212

30

242

71.9

2004

290

21

311

91.1

2005

287

30

317

91.4

2006

327

32

359

101.8

2007

392

31

423

118.1

2008

426

30

456

125.2

2009

418

45

463

124.0

2010

403

38

441

116.9

2011

430

31

461

121.7

2012

437

32

469

122.8

Total

5226

549

5775

-

* per million population


TABLE 2: DISTRIBUTION OF HIV/AIDS - INFECTED SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY MODES OF TRANSMISSION (1985 – 2012)

Mode of Transmission

1985 – 2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Sexual Transmission: Heterosexual

1892

222

255

248

284

228

210

220

Sexual Transmission: Homosexual

420

95

130

151

139

163

195

210

Sexual Transmission: Bisexual

208

14

15

34

27

41

42

27

Intravenous drug use

53

14

7

20

7

4

4

2

Blood Transfusion

3

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

Renal Transplant overseas

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Perinatal (mother to child)

25

2

2

0

0

2

0

0

Uncertain

97

12

13

3

6

3

10

10

Total

2703

359

423

456

463

441

461

469


TABLE 3: HIV/AIDS - INFECTED SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS AND SEX (1985 – 2012)

Marital status

1985 – 2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Male

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Single

1442

200

230

280

255

265

300

295

 

Married

668

92

114

105

116

108

101

102

 

Divorced/Separated

224

30

42

37

40

26

26

31

 

Widowed

59

5

6

4

7

4

3

9

Female

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Single

63

8

6

1

8

8

8

7

 

Married

191

17

17

17

26

20

14

13

 

Divorced/Separated

32

6

7

7

9

6

6

10

 

Widowed

24

1

1

5

2

4

3

2

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Single

1505

208

236

281

263

273

308

302

 

Married

859

109

131

122

142

128

115

115

 

Divorced/Separated

256

36

49

44

49

32

32

41

 

Widowed

83

6

7

9

9

8

6

11


TABLE 4: HIV/AIDS - INFECTED SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY ETHNIC GROUP (1985 – 2012)

Ethnic Group

1985 – 2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Chinese

2255

292

355

363

341

329

355

356

Malay

241

47

47

71

76

69

77

80

Indian

123

12

11

15

28

27

24

22

Others

84

8

10

7

18

16

5

11


TABLE 5: HIV/AIDS - INFECTED MALE SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY AGE AND MODES OF TRANSMISSION (1985 – 2012)

Age group

1985 – 2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Male

 Heterosexual  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15  – 19

2

0

1

2

1

0

0

0

 

20 – 29

187

19

15

11

10

16

12

15

 

30 – 39

523

31

33

37

42

30

28

25

 

40 – 49

453

62

82

73

72

58

48

42

 

50 – 59

249

50

66

59

64

47

48

68

 

60 & above

205

31

28

37

52

41

45

39

Homosexual/Bisexual    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15  – 19

13

1

4

4

2

4

3

9

 

20 – 29

164

28

38

52

44

50

73

72

 

30 – 39

276

51

61

73

62

77

86

81

 

40 – 49

134

24

33

39

45

58

52

58

 

50 – 59

28

5

8

15

11

12

18

12

 

60 & above

6

0

1

2

2

2

5

4

Others

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  0 – 14

12

2

1

0

0

2

0

0

 

15 –19

2

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

 

20 –29

20

3

1

3

2

0

1

2

 

30 –39

49

10

5

10

5

2

2

2

 

40 –49

47

5

6

4

3

3

1

3

 

50 –59

13

5

7

4

1

0

7

2

 

60 & above

10

0

1

0

0

0

0

2

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  0 – 14

12

2

1

0

0

2

0

0

 

15  – 19

17

1

6

7

3

5

4

10

 

20 – 29

371

50

54

66

56

66

86

89

 

30 – 39

848

92

99

120

109

109

116

108

 

40 – 49

634

91

121

116

120

119

101

103

 

50 – 59

290

60

81

78

76

59

73

82

 

60 & above

221

31

30

39

54

43

50

45


TABLE 6: HIV/AIDS - INFECTED FEMALE SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY AGE AND MODES OF TRANSMISSION (1985 – 2012)

Age group

1985 – 2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Female

 Sexual  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15  – 19

4

1

3

0

0

1

0

1

 

20 – 29

107

7

1

3

8

5

6

3

 

30 – 39

79

8

7

10

15

7

7

4

 

40 – 49

45

6

13

8

8

8

4

8

 

50 – 59

32

6

6

4

6

9

5

12

 

60 & above

13

2

0

4

6

7

7

4

Others

               

 

 0 – 14

13

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

 

15 –19

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

20 –29

5

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

 

30 –39

6

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

 

40 –49

3

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

 

50 –59

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

60 & above

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total

               

 

  0 – 14

13

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

 

15  – 19

4

1

3

0

0

1

0

1

 

20 – 29

112

7

1

3

9

5

6

3

 

30 – 39

85

8

7

10

16

7

8

4

 

40 – 49

48

7

13

9

8

9

5

8

 

50 – 59

33

6

6

4

6

9

5

12

 

60 & above

15

2

0

4

6

7

7

4

 

 

[1] Singapore citizens and permanent residents
[2] CD4+ cell count of less than 200 per cu mm or AIDS-defining opportunistic infections or both
[3] Includes cases that presented with HIV-specific symptoms and cases with non-HIV related medical conditions 
[4] Includes screening programmes for individuals with sexually transmitted infections, hospital inpatients and those identified through contact tracing

 

 

 

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