MOH and HPB Urge At-risk Groups to go for Regular Testing

1.             In the first 10 months (January – October) of 2013, another 378 new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections were reported among Singapore residents[1].  By extrapolation, it can be expected that the total number of notified HIV cases in 2013 will be similar to that of 2012 (469 cases). Annex A provides detailed data for the cases reported in the first 6 months of 2013.  Information on newly reported HIV cases is regularly updated on the Ministry of Health (MOH) website.

Characteristics of new cases of HIV infection reported in first 6 months of 2013

2.            Of the 198 Singapore residents detected with HIV infection in the first six months of 2013, 95% are males.

3.            Sexual transmission remains the main mode of HIV transmission.  Almost all (97%) of the 198 cases acquired the infection through the sexual route. Heterosexual transmission accounted for 43% of these cases while 44% were from homosexual transmission and 10% were from bisexual transmission. 

4.            Almost half (48%) of the new cases reported in the first half of 2013 were aged 30 to 49 years.       

5.            Two in five newly reported cases already had late-stage HIV infection[2] when they were diagnosed. This was lower than the proportion of 50% in previous years.

6.            Slightly over 40% of the newly reported cases from January to June 2013 had their HIV detected when HIV testing was performed in the course of medical care provision. Another 30% were detected during routine programmatic HIV screening while 20% were detected as a result of voluntary HIV screening. The rest were detected through other types of screening.  When differentiated by sexual transmission, a higher proportion of homosexuals (33%) had their HIV infection detected via voluntary screening compared to heterosexuals (8%).

Public advisory

7.            The most effective way to prevent HIV infection is to remain faithful to one’s spouse/partner and to avoid casual sex, and sex with sex workers. Persons engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour, such as having multiple sexual partners or engaging in casual or commercial sex, are strongly advised to use condoms to reduce their risk of HIV infection. Condoms should be used consistently and correctly during every sexual encounter.

8.            MOH and the Health Promotion Board (HPB) urge individuals at risk of HIV infection to go for regular HIV testing. Regular HIV testing can help an infected person to be diagnosed at an earlier stage of infection. With early diagnosis, a HIV positive person can access care and treatment earlier, and also receive counseling on how to protect their partners from infection. 

9.            HPB has been working with partner organisations to conduct programmes and campaigns targeted at high-risk individuals to urge them to go for early and regular HIV testing. HPB’s partners conduct various educational outreach programmes on HIV prevention and management using a lifestyle approach. These programmes reaches out to at-risk individuals through social settings to encourage them to take personal proactive measures and have regular HIV testing, so as to allow for early detection and treatment, delay the onset of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and ensure an active and productive life.

MINISTRY OF HEALTH

29 NOVEMBER 2013

===================

ANNEX A

 

TABLE 1
NUMBER OF SINGAPORE RESIDENTS REPORTED WITH HIV /AIDS (1985 –
Jun 2013)

 

Year

HIV/AIDS

Male

Female

Total

Rate*

1985

2

0

2

0.8

1986

6

1

7

2.8

1987

10

0

10

3.9

1988

15

0

15

5.8

1989

9

1

10

3.8

1990

17

0

17

6.2

1991

39

3

42

15.0

1992

49

6

55

19.3

1993

58

6

64

22.0

1994

76

10

86

29.1

1995

102

9

111

36.8

1996

123

16

139

45.3

1997

157

16

173

55.4

1998

167

32

199

62.6

1999

171

35

206

63.8

2000

193

33

226

69.0

2001

204

33

237

71.3

2002

206

28

234

69.2

2003

212

30

242

71.9

2004

290

21

311

91.1

2005

287

30

317

91.4

2006

327

32

359

101.8

2007

392

31

423

118.1

2008

2009

2010

2011

426

418

403

430

30

45

38

31

456

463

441

461

125.2

124.0

116.9

121.7

2012

437

32

469

122.8

Jan – Jun 2013

188

10

198

-

Total

5414

559

5973

-

* per million population.

                     

TABLE 2
DISTRIBUTION OF HIV/AIDS - INFECTED SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY MODES OF TRANSMISSION
(1985 – Jun 2013)

Mode of Transmission

1985 – 2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013      Jan - Jun

Sexual Transmission

               

            Heterosexual

2114

255

248

284

228

210

220

86

            Homosexual

515

130

151

139

163

195

210

87

            Bisexual

222

15

34

27

41

42

27

20

Intravenous drug use

67

7

20

7

4

4

2

3

Blood Transfusion

3

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Renal Transplant overseas

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Perinatal (mother to child)

27

2

0

0

2

0

0

0

Uncertain

109

13

3

6

3

10

10

2

Total

3062

423

456

463

441

461

469

198



TABLE 3
HIV/AIDS - INFECTED SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS AND SEX (1985 – Jun 2013)

Marital status

1985 – 2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013   Jan - Jun

Male

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Single

1642

230

280

255

265

300

295

127

 

Married

760

114

105

116

108

101

102

39

 

Divorced/Separated

254

42

37

40

26

26

31

20

 

Widowed

64

6

4

7

4

3

9

2

Female

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Single

71

6

1

8

8

8

7

2

 

Married

208

17

17

26

20

14

13

6

 

Divorced/Separated

38

7

7

9

6

6

10

2

 

Widowed

25

1

5

2

4

3

2

0

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Single

1713

236

281

263

273

308

302

129

 

Married

968

131

122

142

128

115

115

45

 

Divorced/Separated

292

49

44

49

32

32

41

22

 

Widowed

89

7

9

9

8

6

11

2

 

TABLE 4
HIV/AIDS - INFECTED SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY ETHNIC GROUP
(1985 – Jun 2013) 

Ethnic Group

1985 - 2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013  Jan - Jun

Chinese

2547

355

363

341

329

355

356

143

Malay

288

47

71

76

69

77

80

39

Indian

135

11

15

28

27

24

22

8

Others

92

10

7

18

16

5

11

8

 

TABLE 5
HIV/AIDS - INFECTED MALE SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY AGE AND MODES OF TRANSMISSION (1985 – Jun 2013)

Age group

1985 - 2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013   Jan - Jun

Male

 Heterosexual  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15  – 19

2

1

2

1

0

0

0

0

 

20 – 29

206

15

11

10

16

12

15

7

 

30 – 39

554

33

37

42

30

28

25

10

 

40 – 49

515

82

73

72

58

48

42

20

 

50 – 59

299

66

59

64

47

48

68

23

 

60 & above

236

28

37

52

41

45

39

16

Homosexual/Bisexual    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15  – 19

14

4

4

2

4

3

9

0

 

20 – 29

192

38

52

44

50

73

72

34

 

30 – 39

327

61

73

62

77

86

81

28

 

40 – 49

158

33

39

45

58

52

58

31

 

50 – 59

33

8

15

11

12

18

12

14

 

60 & above

6

1

2

2

2

5

4

0

Others

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  0 – 14

14

1

0

0

2

0

0

0

 

15 –19

2

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

 

20 –29

23

1

3

2

0

1

2

0

 

30 –39

59

5

10

5

2

2

2

0

 

40 –49

52

6

4

3

3

1

3

3

 

50 –59

18

7

4

1

0

7

2

1

 

60 & above

10

1

0

0

0

0

2

0

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  0 – 14

14

1

0

0

2

0

0

0

 

15  – 19

18

6

7

3

5

4

10

1

 

20 – 29

421

54

66

56

66

86

89

41

 

30 – 39

940

99

120

109

109

116

108

38

 

40 – 49

725

121

116

120

119

101

103

54

 

50 – 59

350

81

78

76

59

73

82

38

 

60 & above

252

30

39

54

43

50

45

16

 

TABLE 6
HIV/AIDS - INFECTED FEMALE SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY AGE AND MODES OF TRANSMISSION
(1985 – Jun 2013)

Age group

1985 - 2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013    

Jan - Jun

Female

 Sexual  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15  – 19

5

3

0

0

1

0

1

1

 

20 – 29

114

1

3

8

5

6

3

3

 

30 – 39

87

7

10

15

7

7

4

1

 

40 – 49

51

13

8

8

8

4

8

2

 

50 – 59

38

6

4

6

9

5

12

2

 

60 & above

15

0

4

6

7

7

4

1

Others

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 0 – 14

14

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

15 –19

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

20 –29

5

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

 

30 –39

6

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

 

40 –49

4

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

 

50 –59

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

60 & above

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  0 – 14

14

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

15  – 19

5

3

0

0

1

0

1

1

 

20 – 29

119

1

3

9

5

6

3

3

 

30 – 39

93

7

10

16

7

8

4

1

 

40 – 49

55

13

9

8

9

5

8

2

 

50 – 59

39

6

4

6

9

5

12

2

 

60 & above

17

0

4

6

7

7

4

1

 

 

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