Overview of Diseases

Learn more about the various infectious diseases that Singapore has overcome.

06 Jun 2024



Zika is a viral infection. It is generally a mild virus, with only one in five cases developing symptoms. It does not usually require medical treatment except to alleviate symptoms if the occur. Serious neurological complications are rare.

Last Updated: 06 Jun 2024


HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is an incurable virus that attacks the immune system, destroying essential white blood cells that protect the body from bacteria, viruses and other harmful microorganisms. This makes it harder for the body to fight infections, and increases the severity of common conditions and diseases, including cancer.

Last Updated: 29 Apr 2024


Dengue fever is caused by the dengue virus. It is most common mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. Dengue fever can be fatal. Together with the National Environment Agency (NEA), we track all dengue-related deaths in Singapore via a quarterly report.

Last Updated: 05 Apr 2024


Mpox is a viral disease that is caused by infection with the monkeypox virus . Mpox is typically a self-limiting illness that presents with fever and rash. However, serious complications or death can occur in some individuals.

Last Updated: 27 Nov 2023

Ebola Virus Disease

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), previously known as Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever, is a rare disease which causes severe, often fatal illness in humans.

Last Updated: 04 Oct 2023

Yellow Fever

Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne acute viral haemorrhagic disease which is caused by the yellow fever virus. Vaccination is a key preventive measure against yellow fever.

Last Updated: 31 Aug 2023

Avian Influenza

Avian influenza, commonly known as bird flu, is a disease affecting wild birds and domestic poultry such as chicken, ducks and turkeys. It is caused by a flu virus closely related to human flu viruses.

Last Updated: 12 Jun 2023

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a viral infection most commonly caused by the Coxsackie virus. It affects both adults and children, although it is more common in children under the age of 5.

Last Updated: 16 Mar 2023

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a viral illness caused by the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). MERS-CoV is a zoonotic virus and is transmitted between animals and people, and has been identified and linked to human infections in dromedary camels in the Middle east, Africa and South Asia.

Last Updated: 27 Dec 2022


Influenza (or the flu) is a common infection that can be caused by 3 different viruses – Type A, Type B and Type C. Type C is the mildest and most common version of the flu, while Type A and B are more severe, and are usually associated with annual outbreaks and epidemics.

Last Updated: 04 Oct 2019


Tuberculosis, better known as TB, is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is an air-borne disease transmitted through fine respiratory droplets from an infected person. It usually affects the lungs (pulmonary tuberculosis), but other parts of the body can also be affected (extrapulmonary tuberculosis), such as the brain, lymph nodes, the kidneys, bones, and joints.

Last Updated: 27 Aug 2018

Norovirus Gastroenteritis (Gastric Flu)

Gastroenteritis, sometimes known as ‘gastric flu’, is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, caused by either: infection by bacteria, parasites or viruses, such as norovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, sapovirus or astrovirus; or certain medications or medical conditions.

Last Updated: 12 Jul 2018