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UPDATE ON THE HIV/AIDS SITUATION IN SINGAPORE 2018 (JUNE 2019)

01 Jul 2019

UPDATE ON THE HIV/AIDS SITUATION IN SINGAPORE 2018 (JUNE 2019) 

There were 313 new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections reported among Singapore residents[1] in 2018. This brings the total number of HIV-infected Singapore residents to 8,295 as of end 2018, of whom 2,034 had passed away. The number of new HIV cases among Singapore residents has been between 400 to 500 per year from 2007 to 2017.

2.    Of the 313 cases, 93% were male and 62% were between 20 to 49 years old. About 50% had late-stage HIV infection[2]when they were diagnosed.

3.    Sexual intercourse remains the main mode of HIV transmission. 95% (298 out of 313) of the cases acquired the infection through sexual intercourse. Heterosexual transmission accounted for 43% of all cases, while 42% were from homosexual transmission and 10% from bisexual transmission. (Please refer to the Annex for details.)

4.    57% of the newly reported cases were detected in the course of medical care provision[3]. Such cases are typically at the late stage of HIV infection. Another 22% were detected during routine programmatic HIV screening[4] and 14% were detected from self-initiated HIV screening i.e. voluntary screening. Cases detected via voluntary screening are more likely to be at the early stage of infection. When differentiated by sexual transmission, a higher proportion of homosexuals and bisexuals (20%) had their HIV infection detected via voluntary screening compared to heterosexuals (9%).


Public Advisory

5.    The most effective way to prevent HIV infection is to remain faithful to one’s spouse/ partner and to avoid casual sex, or sex with sex workers. Persons engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour, such as having multiple sexual partners or engaging in casual or commercial sex, are strongly advised to use condoms to reduce their risk of HIV infection. Condoms should be used consistently and correctly during every sexual encounter.

6.    The Ministry of Health and the Health Promotion Board (HPB) urge individuals who engage in high-risk sexual behaviour to go for early and regular HIV testing. With early diagnosis, an infected person can be treated earlier, and receive counselling on how to protect their partners from infection.  Early treatment and care can delay the onset of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and also helps reduce HIV spread in the community. HIV testing is available at polyclinics, private clinics, and hospitals. There are also anonymous HIV test sites, where personal particulars are not required when signing up for a HIV test.

7.    HPB has been working with partner organisations to conduct programmes and campaigns targeted at high-risk individuals to urge them to go for regular HIV testing. HPB’s partners conduct various educational outreach programmes on HIV prevention and management using a lifestyle approach. These programmes reach out to at-risk individuals through social settings to encourage them to take protective measures and to go for early and regular HIV testing. 

8.    More information about HIV and AIDS can be found at www.healthhub.sg


ANNEX  

TABLE 1

NUMBER OF SINGAPORE RESIDENTS REPORTED WITH HIV /AIDS

(1985 – 2018)  

Year

HIV/AIDS

Male

Female

Total

Rate*

1985

2

0

2

0.8

1986

6

1

7

2.8

1987

10

0

10

3.9

1988

15

0

15

5.8

1989

9

1

10

3.8

1990

17

0

17

6.2

1991

39

3

42

15

1992

49

6

55

19.3

1993

58

6

64

22

1994

76

10

86

29.1

1995

102

9

111

36.8

1996

123

16

139

45.3

1997

157

16

173

55.4

1998

167

32

199

62.6

1999

171

35

206

63.8

2000

193

33

226

69

2001

204

33

237

71.3

2002

206

28

234

69.2

2003

212

30

242

71.9

2004

290

21

311

91.1

2005

287

30

317

91.4

2006

327

32

359

101.8

2007

392

31

423

118.1

2008

426

30

456

125.2

2009

418

45

463

124

2010

403

38

441

116.9

2011

430

31

461

121.7

2012

437

32

469

122.8

2013

428

26

454

118.1

2014

422

34

456

117.81

2015

423

32

455

116.6

2016

380

28

408

103.7

2017
408
26
434
109.4
2018
 290
 23
313
 7.8

Total

7577

718

8295

-

*Per 100,000 resident population. Prior to 2017, the notification rate was reported per million resident population instead of per 100,000.

TABLE 2

DISTRIBUTION OF HIV/AIDS - INFECTED SINGAPORE RESIDENTS

BY MODES OF TRANSMISSION

(1985 – 2018)  

Mode of Transmission

1985-2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Total

Sexual Transmission

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heterosexual

3340

220

188

217

171

148

155

135

4574

Homosexual

1293

210

210

181

232

213

218

131

2688

Bisexual

381

27

38

42

35

28

44

32

627

Intravenous drug use

109

2

4

1

4

4

0

1

125

Blood Transfusion

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

Renal Transplant overseas

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

Perinatal (mother to child)

31

0

0

0

0

2*

1*

0

34

Uncertain/Others

144

10

14

15

13

13

16

14

239

Total

5306

469

454

456

455

408

434

313

8295


*Transmission occurred overseas

 

 

HIV/AIDS - INFECTED SINGAPORE RESIDENTS

BY MARITAL STATUS AND SEX

(1985 – 2018)  

Marital status

1985 - 2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Total

Male

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Single

2971

295

292

287

321

282

316

199

4963

 

Married

1305

102

92

102

64

68

65

68

1866

 

Divorced/Separated

425

31

38

27

29

24

23

12

609

 

Widowed

88

9

6

6

9

6

4

11

139

 

Total

4789

437

428

422

423

380

408

290

7577

Female

 

 

 

Single

102

7

8

4

5

1

7

6

140

 

Married

302

13

14

22

18

16

11

11

407

 

Divorced/Separated

73

10

3

6

9

9

7

3

120

 

Widowed

40

2

1

2

0

2

1

3

51

 

Total

517

32

26

34

32

28

26

23

718

Total

 

 

 

Single

3073

302

300

291

326

283

323

205

5103

 

Married

1607

115

106

124

82

84

76

79

2273

 

Divorced/Separated

498

41

41

33

38

33

30

15

729

 

Widowed

128

11

7

8

9

8

5

14

190

 

Total

5306

469

454

456

455

408

434

313

8295

 

TABLE 4

HIV/AIDS - INFECTED SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY ETHNIC GROUP

(1985 – 2018)  

Ethnic Group

1985 - 2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Total

Chinese

4290

356

323

301

340

275

299

209

6393

Malay

628

80

94

90

72

88

82

59

1193

Indian

240

22

22

41

22

29

27

29

432

Others

148

11

15

24

21

16

26

16

277

Total

5306

469

454

456

455

408

434

313

8295


 


TABLE 5

HIV/AIDS - INFECTED MALE SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY AGE AND MODES OF TRANSMISSION (1985 – 2018)  

Age group

1986 - 2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Total

Male

Heterosexual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 – 19

6

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

9

20 – 29

270

15

14

15

13

10

17

8

362

30 – 39

724

25

23

29

25

17

19

16

878

40 – 49

848

42

36

50

41

30

31

25

1103

50 – 59

583

68

52

49

34

41

38

38

903

 

60 & above

439

39

38

39

30

23

26

27

661

 

Total

2870

189

163

183

144

121

132

114

3916

Homosexual/Bisexual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 – 19

31

9

1

5

4

2

4

3

59

20 – 29

449

72

70

61

80

82

77

45

936

30 – 39

686

81

77

75

93

67

75

42

1196

40 – 49

385

58

66

50

56

60

62

41

778

50 – 59

97

12

31

28

29

25

38

26

286

 

60 & above

18

4

3

4

5

5

5

6

50

 

Total

1666

236

248

223

267

241

261

163

3305

Others

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0 – 14

17

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

19

15 –19

6

1

1

0

0

1

2

1

12

20 –29

30

2

2

6

2

1

1

0

44

30 –39

83

2

2

4

2

3

3

2

101

40 –49

69

3

6

1

3

5

5

1

93

50 –59

37

2

3

3

4

4

3

5

61

 

60 & above

11

2

3

2

1

2

1

4

26

 

Total

253

12

17

16

12

18

15

13

356

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0 – 14

17

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

19

15 – 19

43

10

2

6

5

3

7

4

80

20 – 29

749

89

86

82

95

93

95

53

1342

30 – 39

1493

108

102

108

120

87

97

60

2175

40 – 49

1302

103

108

101

100

95

98

67

1974

50 – 59

717

82

86

80

67

70

79

69

1250

 

60 & above

468

45

44

45

36

30

32

37

737

 

 

Total

4789

437

428

422

423

380

408

290

7577

 

TABLE 6

HIV/AIDS - INFECTED FEMALE SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY AGE AND MODES OF TRANSMISSION (1985 – 2018)  

Age group

1985-2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Total

Female

Sexual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 – 19

9

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

12

20 – 29

137

3

5

2

2

5

7

4

165

30 – 39

133

4

8

8

8

3

3

4

171

40 – 49

92

8

5

9

9

7

6

4

140

50 – 59

68

12

4

9

7

8

5

4

117

 

60& above

39

4

2

5

3

4

3

5

65

 

Total

478

32

25

34

29

27

24

21

670

Others

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0 – 14

15

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

15

15 –19

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

20 –29

6

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

30 –39

8

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

10

40 –49

7

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

10

50 –59

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

3

 

60 & above

2

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

3

 

Total

39

0

1

0

3

1

2

2

48

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0 – 14

15

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

15

15 – 19

9

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

13

20 – 29

143

3

5

2

2

5

7

4

171

30 – 39

141

4

8

8

9

4

3

4

181

40 – 49

99

8

6

9

10

7

6

5

150

50 – 59

69

12

4

9

8

8

5

5

120

 

60 & above

41

4

2

5

3

4

4

5

68

 

Total

517

32

26

34

32

28

26

23

718

 

[1] Singapore citizens and permanent residents 

[2] CD4+ cell count of less than 200 per cu mm or AIDS-defining opportunistic infections or both 

[3] Includes cases that presented with HIV-specific symptoms and cases with non-HIV related medical conditions  

[4] Includes screening programmes for individuals with sexually transmitted infections, hospital inpatients and those identified through contact tracing