Communicable Diseases Surveillance in Singapore 2016

05 Jun 2022

Communicable Diseases Surveillance in Singapore 2016


2016 has been an eventful year for Singapore for emerging infectious diseases. While we may be a small country, we are well connected to many cities in the world. As Singapore continues to develop into a major global trade and travel hub, it is imperative that Singapore remains vigilant to public health threats, both locally and overseas, to safeguard the health of our population. 

We carried out epidemiological surveillance and research of infectious diseases to monitor the disease situation, identify outbreaks, formulate and evaluate prevention and control strategies. 

The Zika virus infection was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in 2016. In May of the year, we had our first imported Zika infection case returning from Brazil and subsequently, the first local cluster was reported in August in the Aljunied neighbourhood. A total of 298 cases were reported in the outbreak and it was contained in four weeks with prompt and coordinated national action. 

Additionally, an unusual cluster of MDR-TB cases was detected in Ang Mo Kio. Fortunately, no further active TB cases linked to the cluster were detected after a massive screening exercise was conducted to rule out further transmission. TB remains a public health concern in Singapore and we need to continue engaging stakeholders and developing strategies to enhance our national TB programme. 

We also worked on improvements to our national surveillance system to enhance our capability to respond to infectious diseases outbreaks. A healthcare epidemiology team was formed on 1 April 2016 to assist in the investigation of healthcare associated outbreaks. Notwithstanding, we have expanded the list of notifiable infectious diseases from 43 to 49 diseases, including botulism, tetanus, leptospirosis, murine typhus, rabies and Japanese encephalitis. 

The purpose of this publication is to facilitate easy reference for public health officials, doctors, researchers and academics alike. I hope that you will find this report useful. 

The Ministry would like to thank all healthcare professionals and our partner agencies for their support and dedication in combating and minimising the threats of communicable diseases, for the common goal of safeguarding public health. We look forward to your continued support and cooperation. 

Dr Derrick Heng
Group Director (Public Health Group)
Ministry of Health, Singapore


In order to access the information, please download Acrobat Reader software.


Foreword [PDF, 134KB]

1. Overview [PDF, 1MB]

  • Population Profile
  • Communicable Diseases Situation 

2. Air /Droplet-Borne Diseases [PDF, 1MB]

  • Haemophilus Influenza Type B Disease
  • Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease
  • Influenza
  • Measles
  • Meningococcal Infection
  • Mumps
  • Pertussis
  • Pneumococcal Disease
  • Rubella
  • Viral Conjunctivitis
  • Chickenpox

3. Vector-Borne /Zoonotic Diseases [PDF, 4MB]

  • Chikungunya Fever
  • Dengue Fever/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever
  • Leptospirosis
  • Malaria
  • Murine Typhus
  • Zika Virus Infection

4. Food-/Water-Borne Diseases [PDF, 1MB]

  • Acute Diarrhoeal Illnesses
  • Campylobacteriosis
  • Cholera
  • Enteric Fevers
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis E
  • Salmonellosis
  • Food Poisoning

5. Blood-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Diseases [PDF, 1005KB]

  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections

6. Other Diseases [PDF, 1MB]

  • Legionellosis
  • Leprosy
  • Melioidosis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Healthcare-Associated Outbreaks
  • Severe Illness and Death from Possibly Infectious Causes

7. Childhood Immunisation [PDF, 1MB]

  • History of the Immunisation Programme
  • Programme Implementation
  • Evaluation of Programme Effectiveness
  • Public Education


We would like to thank all medical practitioners, laboratory personnel, nurses, public health professionals, as well as partners from public and private healthcare institutions and other government agencies, who have, in one way or another, contributed to the data and information reported in this publication. We acknowledge their valuable contributions towards our national efforts in communicable diseases surveillance, prevention and control, and look forward to their continued support and cooperation in our work.

We also gratefully acknowledge the contributions of many colleagues in the following: National Public Health Laboratory (Chapters 2, 4 and 5), National Environment Agency (Chapter 3), National Public Health Unit (Chapters 5 and 6), Department of STI Control (Chapter 5), National University Hospital (Chapter 5), Singapore General Hospital (Chapter 5), Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Chapter 5), National Skin Centre (Chapter 6), STEP Registry, TB Control Unit (Chapter 6), National Immunisation Registry (Chapter 7) and School Health Services, Health Promotion Board (Chapter 7). Without their diligent assistance, this publication would not have been possible. 

(You can also download the Full Version of the Report here. [PDF, 10MB]

Full Version of the Report [PDF, 10MB]


© 2017 by Communicable Diseases Division, Ministry of Health, Singapore.
All rights reserved. No part of the publication may be reproduced without proper citation. 

Front cover: King Edward VII Hall, Ministry of Health. Kelly Foo. 2017.
2017.ISSN 0217-7854

Editorial Committee 2016

Steven Ooi

Chan Pei Pei
Dominic Tan
Foong Bok Huay
Khine Nandar
Kelly Foo
Lai Yingqi
Minn Thu
Tien Wee Siong

Derrick Heng
Jeffery Cutter
Vernon Lee

Special thanks to
Rachel Lim
Tan Min Zhi
Wycliffe Wei