Yellow Fever

Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne acute viral hemorrhagic disease which is caused by the yellow fever virus.

20 Jan 2020

Expand All | Collapse All

Understanding Yellow Fever


Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne acute viral haemorrhagic disease which is caused by the yellow fever virus. The majority of the infected persons are asymptomatic or have only mild illness. Symptoms include

  • fever,
  • chills,
  • headache,
  • muscle aches, 
  • joint aches, 
  • loss of appetite and
  • nausea or vomiting.

Symptoms usually develop within three to six days after the mosquito bite. Recovery from yellow fever infection results in lifelong immunity.  A small proportion of patients who contract the virus develop severe symptoms and approximately half of those with severe disease die within seven to 10 days.

How is Yellow Fever Transmitted


Yellow fever is transmitted through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, similar to dengue and Zika virus. Although there are no reported cases of yellow fever in Singapore, any importation of the disease could result in the disease taking root here due to the presence of the Aedes mosquito vector.

Treatment of Yellow Fever


There is no specific treatment for yellow fever. Treatment is mainly supportive. 

How to Prevent Yellow Fever


Vaccination is an effective preventive measure against yellow fever. A single dose of the yellow fever vaccine confers lifelong protection against the disease 10 days after vaccination. A booster dose is not required. Please ask your doctor to review your suitability for the yellow fever vaccine. 

For persons who are unable to get vaccinated, taking precautions against mosquito-bites can provide some protection. These include: staying in well-screened or air-conditioned areas, wearing clothes that cover most of your body, using an effective insect repellent, such as those containing DEET or Picaridin.

Yellow Fever Vaccination Requirement to Enter Singapore


To protect against the risk of importation and transmission of yellow fever in Singapore, all travellers, including Singapore residents, who arrive in Singapore from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission (i.e. wholly or partly endemic for yellow fever) are required to have a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate. Otherwise, they are liable to be quarantined under Section 31 of the Infectious Disease Act, for up to six days upon arrival in Singapore. Non-residents who refuse quarantine will be turned away and returned to his/her place of origin or last port of embarkation.

This approach is consistent with the World Health Organization’s recommendations in the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005).

The International Certificate of Vaccination for yellow fever is only considered valid 10 days after vaccination and the validity lasts for the life of the person vaccinated.

Countries with risk of yellow fever transmission in whole or in part, correct as of 1 July 2019

 Africa Latin America
 Angola Guinea Argentina
 Benin Guinea-Bissau Bolivia
 Burkina Faso Kenya Brazil
 Burundi Liberia Colombia
 Cameroon Mali Ecuador
 Central African Republic Mauritania French Guiana
 Chad Niger Guyana
 Congo Nigeria Panama
 Côte d’Ivoire Senegal Paraguay
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Sierra Leone Peru
 Equatorial Guinea Sudan Suriname
 Ethiopia  South Sudan Trinidad and Tobago
 Gabon Togo Venezuela
 Gambia Uganda 
 Ghana  

Source: World Health Organization, International Travel and Health. 

Please refer to the WHO website at http://www.who.int/ith/ITH_Annex_I.pdf for the latest list of countries with risk of yellow fever transmission.


Where to Get the Vaccine


Yellow fever vaccination is available at more than 100 GP clinics in Singapore, as well as travel health clinics at public and private hospitals. The list of clinics that provide yellow fever vaccination can be found at http://hcidirectory.sg/hcidirectory/. Please call the clinic to check for vaccine stocks before going down to the clinic.

For more information

  • Call us on our hotline 1800 225 4122